First, Fusarium top rot
Symptoms are manifested in the period from the seedling stage to the adult stage of the corn. The heart leaves rot and dry from the base of the leaves, tightly wrapping the inner heart leaves so that they cannot be unfolded and whip-likely twisted; or the base of the heart leaves is longitudinally cracked, the leaves are deformed, shrunken or distortion. The plants are often dwarfed, and the base of the stem can be seen to be longitudinally cracked and have brown lesions; the severely ill plants are not strong or the ears are small and even dying. Pathogenic bacteria generally invade from young tissues such as wounds or stem nodes and heart leaves, and the damage of insect pests, especially thrips and aphids, can aggravate the occurrence of diseases.
Second, bacterial top rot
It can happen before the corn is taken. The typical symptoms are that the heart leaves are gray-green, water-deficient, withered, forming a dead seedling or a cluster of seedlings; the base of the leaves is water-soaked and rotted, the lesions are irregular, brown or yellow-brown, and the rot has or has no special odor and mucus; In severe cases, the whole heart can be pulled out by hand, and the heart of the light disease plant can not be distorted. High temperature and high humidity are conducive to disease prevalence, and wounds caused by pests or other causes facilitate the invasion of germs. Mostly after the rain or after irrigation in the field, the plots with low or poor drainage are heavier.
The main symptoms are that the diseased plants are short and small, but they are also dwarfed, and other symptoms are more diversified:
1 leaf edge nick type. The base or edge of the susceptible leaf has a "knife-cut" nick, and the leaf margin and top chlorotic are yellow-colored. In severe cases, one half of the leaf or the whole leaf falls off, leaving only the midrib of the leaf and a small amount of mesophyll tissue remaining on the midrib. .
2 leaves dead type. The edge of the base of the blade is brown and rot, and the leaves are sometimes "tearing" or "broken". In severe cases, the tip or whole leaf of the top 4 to 5 leaves die.
3 twisted wrap type. The top blade is curled into an upright "long whip", and some are wrapped by other leaves when forming a whip, and cannot be stretched to form an "arched shape". Some of the top leaves are twisted and entangled and cannot be stretched, and the tangled leaves are often " "Tear-like", "wrinkled" (Note: This symptom is easily confused with "corn madness", the difference is that the edge of the disease has obvious yellowing symptoms, and the deformation and distortion of the leaves are lighter than "madness" ").
4 leaf sheath, stem rot type. The diseased plants with brown rot of the base of the ear nodes often rot in the sheath of the sheath and stem, and the inner side of the sheath and the stalk cortex of the stalk are "rusty" rot. The stem is cut open and the internal vascular bundle is visible. There are brown spots or short strips of discoloration in the stem section, and some voids appear, endogenous white or pink moldy, and easy to fold when windy.
5, elbow type. The leaf base and stem of the ear are yellow, the stem and sheath tissues are softened, and the top of the plant is inclined to one side.
6 top leaf clusters. Some varieties have clustered apex and erect after the disease.
7 abortive or empty stalk type. Lightly susceptible plants can be sharpened, but the ears are small and the seeds are few; the severe females and tassels are aborted, deformed and unable to head, or form empty stalks. (Note: This symptom is similar to â€œborax deficiencyâ€ but lacks Boron is generally found in sandy soils, in poor moisture retention and water retention, and in areas with low organic matter, and occurs in long-term persistent droughts; the disease occurs under conditions of heavy rain and high humidity. The roots of the diseased plants are usually underdeveloped, the main roots are short, the roots are thin and numerous, and they are velvet-like, and the roots are brown and rot. Under high-humidity conditions, the diseased part appeared pinkish white to pink mildew.
Third, the prevention and treatment method
1, timely topdressing. The corn fertility process enters the big trumpet period, and it is necessary to quickly apply nitrogen fertilizer to the corn, especially for the heavier plots. At the same time, it is necessary to spray the micro-fertilizer and growth regulator on the foliar surface to promote early seedling growth, supplement nutrients and improve the resistance to stress.
2. Scientific and rational use of pharmaceuticals. The broad-spectrum fungicide can be used for the prevention and treatment of the newly-occupied plots, such as 50% carbendazim WP 500 times or 70% thiophanate plus agricultural streptomycin plus leaf fertilizer. Sharing the medicine once every 7 days 2-3 times
3. For plots that are difficult to save in serious cases, they must be destroyed in time.
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