September Apple Garden Management Essentials

Month: September (white dew, autumnal)

Phenological period: fruit coloring mature period, autumn shoots stop, root growth for the third time

Management points: autumn pruning, inter-row grass or mowing, prevention and control of pests and diseases, fruit unpacking, apple stickers, leaf picking, fruiting reflective film, batch harvesting, autumn application base fertilizer, etc.

First, plastic trim

1, pull the branch

In order to alleviate the tree potential, balance the shoots and increase the inner lighting. For a prosperous tree with a small angle and a closed inner lining, it is necessary to open the angle in time to pull the branch. Autumn is the golden season of pulling branches. The reason is that autumn is the period of nutrient recirculation. After opening the angle in time, nutrients are easily accumulated in the branches, making the buds fuller and promoting early flowering. Compared with spring pulling, the back is on the back. It will not sprout strong branches; the autumn branches are soft and easy to open, and after the autumn branches, the flowers are ready for the next year. If the branches are cut immediately after spring, the branches are easy to break. After the summer shoots stop, some autumn shoots are prosperous, which is not conducive to the nutrient accumulation of fruit trees. Therefore, after entering September, these branches should be transferred from the base of the spindle branch (to grasp the degree, the injury is not conducive to wound healing) The thicker branches and branches are fixed and drooped, and the fine branches can be lightly wounded from the base of the spindle branch. Some of the virtual branches, the buds are not full, and when the base of the spindle branch is turned, the 5-6 leaves are separated in the middle of the branch until the tip is turned. The real Wangzhi, after the drooping branches, can produce many short and medium branches next year, so there is no need to turn in the middle.

2, take the branch to soften

From the beginning of August to the end of September, when the new shoots are close to growing or have been lignified, it is necessary to extend the erect new shoots or the branches of the main branches on the lower part of the head. Do not damage the leaves. Generally, after the litchi is softened, the branches should reach sagging or horizontal. In order to enhance the effect of taking the branches, it is best to carry out 2 - 3 times every 7-10 days to lay the foundation for the formation of flower buds in the current year or the next year.

3, thinning and grace

In autumn, the trees are generally prosperous, the consumption of nutrients is intensified, and the phenomenon of canopy closure is serious. The implementation of pruning and dimming measures should be implemented. In September, for the closed tree, reasonable branching, the object is the erect branch, the sprouting branch, the competitive branch on the auxiliary branch, and the tie, the oblique branch, etc., lead the light into the crown, and promote coloring. (1) clearing the roots and sprouting; (2) removing the strong branches, dense branches and peripheral branches of the straight branches on the back of the main branches; (3) dying the branches, the tree is basically stable, and the amount of acres is already The ideal tree, the front flower buds, leaves, and fruit are many. Due to the excessive amount of underground fertilizer and water, the branches of these branches are prone to shoot off branches, such as turning branches and pulling branches, there is no place to put them around, and then letting them affect. illumination. Such branches and weak branches of the front flower buds can be removed from the base of the spindle branch at this time, which is beneficial to the nutrient accumulation of the remaining branches and the coloration of the fruit, and does not cause the tree to be stripped after the branches are removed. When removing the branches, remove them from the base of the spindle branch at once, and do not leave branches, so as not to cause the next year to grow. For small weak branches (soft branches) of 30-50 cm long, do not die, in order to increase the number of twigs on the back of the branch, it is wrong for some people to completely remove all the branches on the back. For trees that need to be rehabilitated after fruitless trees or fruit picking next year, some of the tree branches in the middle and late September will help stabilize the tree and reduce the workload next year. When the weak tree is removed from the branches, be careful not to go. If you have to go to the big branch, you should do it on the basis of increasing the amount of base fertilizer used. Care should be taken to protect the wound and it can be applied with a healing agent or seal oil.

Timely elimination of roots

Second, drainage and flood control

September is the concentrated coloring period of apples. Appropriate control of water supply (appropriate drought) is very beneficial to the coloration of fruits and improves the appearance quality. In view of the fact that there are more rains in autumn, excessive soil moisture and poor ventilation, it is necessary to do drainage and flood control, cultivating loose soil to keep the soil loose and well ventilated, and always create a good soil environment for root growth and development, and prevent soil moisture. It affects the color development of the fruit.

Third, the fruit in addition to the bag

The fruit is required to grow in the bag for about 100~120 days, and the red double-growing fruit bag in the double layer is best divided into two bags. The fruit in the high altitude area is fast-colored, and the bag can be removed 10 to 15 days before the normal fruit picking. The fruit in the low-altitude area is slow to be colored. The bag can be removed 15 to 20 days before the normal fruit picking. The bag is removed first, and within 3 to 5 days. Remove the inner bag. In addition to the bag, it is best to choose a bag in cloudy or cloudy weather. The bag should be removed from 9 to 12 o'clock in the sunny day and 3 to 7 o'clock in the afternoon. In addition to the inner bag, the bag in the east, north and crown of the canopy is removed in the morning. When removing the bag in the afternoon, it should be torn from the southern and western half of the canopy to cover the fruit, and prevent the bag from being removed during the high temperature period to prevent sunburn.

Inadvertently unpacking the bag, causing fruit burning

Fourth, picking leaves and turning fruits

Leaf picking can be carried out in steps. The first time the bag is removed, the rosette leaves close to the fruit are removed; after the bag is removed, the leaves within 5-10 cm of the fruit are removed. Leaf picking should be carried out after 9 am. Choose a cloudy or sunny evening to remove the bag and avoid the noon to prevent sunburn. First cut off the shading and fruiting leaves around the fruit within 15~20 cm. After 5~6 days, remove the light-blocking leaves, leaflets, thin leaves, yellow leaves and old leaves around the fruit, and then remove the autumn shoots. The leaves and the upper and middle branches affect some of the light-transmissive leaves, and try to retain the functional leaves so as not to affect the photosynthetic efficiency. When picking the leaves, the middle, lower and inner ridges of the canopy are removed first, and then the outer periphery of the canopy is removed. In short, the petiole must retain the petiole, and the number of leaves should not exceed 20~30% of the whole tree. If the labor price is high, this work can be done less.

The fruit transfer is carried out within 5~8 days after the bag is removed, and the fruit color is about 70% when it is colored. The result of the transfer is to rotate the fruit by 90 to 180 degrees, so that the yin and yang faces of the fruit are exchanged to ensure that the original shade is also lascivious. Gently turn the fruit to turn the shady side to the sunny side. Do not use too much force to avoid twisting the fruit. It is better to change the fruit 2 to 3 times. For the fruit that cannot be fixed after the fruit is transferred, it is fixed with transparent narrow tape. On the nearby branches. Note: The fruit should be turned in one direction to avoid twisting the fruit handle.

Full fruit coloring after fruit picking

Five, timely spraying drugs to prevent disease and calcium fertilizer

The apple peel after bagging is delicate, it is easy to be infected with red spot disease, the stomata is enlarged, and the crack appears. In addition, calcium deficiency is easy to cause diseases such as calcium deficiency, and small cracks appear on the fruit surface, which reduces the storage property of the fruit. Product performance. Therefore, after removing the bag, spray 1~2 times of fungicide and calcium supplement. Spraying organic potassium fertilizer when necessary can promote red Fuji apples to be colored and colored in advance.

Six, under the tree reflective film

The reflective film is applied after the end of the picking. A reflective film is placed under the canopy to reflect the light that hits the ground to the tree, so that the scorpion fruit and the scorpion of the fruit are also colored. The reflected light makes the fruit surface brightly colored, and has obvious effects on improving the appearance quality of the fruit, and can enhance the consumer's desire to purchase the fruit. At the end of September or early October, after the bag is removed from the bag, the apple is placed under the tree along the direction of the silver reflective film, which is conducive to the coloration of the inner and lower parts of the canopy. When the paving, the weeds under the tree are removed, the land is leveled, the hard materials are cleaned, the membrane is straightened and the edges are compacted. After the paving, the membrane surface is often cleaned, kept clean and the reflective effect is increased. The film is taken 1 to 2 days before harvesting, cleaned and dried, and then used for later use.

Reflective film between rows promotes fruit coloring

Seven, fruit paste increased income

The time of the paste should be determined according to the maturity of the fruit. Prematurely, because the fruit is swollen, it is easy to pull out the strokes of the words and affect the artistic effect; the fruit is too mature and too late to achieve the intended purpose. When operating, use the knife to peel off the word “immediate sticker”, and stick the colored side to the crotch on the sunny side of the fruit, so as not to wrinkle it as much as possible. Usually 1 fruit sticks 1 word. Handle the operation gently to prevent fruit drop. After the apples are harvested, the characters or patterns of the fruit surface are removed, the fruit surface is wiped off, and the apple is waxed with the fruit wax to increase the gloss of the fruit surface, reduce the water loss of the fruit, and prolong the life of the fruit. The same typeface, the size of the fruit is boxed, marked, placed in a group (pattern) or packed in a plastic bag (box) or a box for easy sale. Thus, the packaged fruit can usually be increased by about 10 times.

Fruit coloring before coloring after bag unloading, increasing economic benefits

Eight, timely harvest in batches

It is very important to pick at the right time. Generally, the picking time is determined according to the growth period of the fruit, that is, the number of days from flowering to maturity. For example, the Marshal Department has a long-term life of about 140 days, the Red Fuji is about 175 days, the National Light is about 160 days, and Jonathan is about 150 days. Harvesting is an important part of the quality of the fruit. Generally, in addition to the inner bag about 10 days, when the appearance quality of the fruit meets the requirements of the commodity, it can be harvested in batches.

Precautions for harvesting operation: 1Adopt the harvesting tools such as fruit picking bags, fruit picking ladders, fruit boxes (baskets), etc. Before cutting fruit, you must cut short nails and wear soft bottom shoes. 2 When operating, hold the fruit by hand, the index finger is placed on the end of the handle and gently lifted up. The handle is separated from the fruit table. Do not hard pull the hard palate; the principle of light picking, light loading, light loading and light unloading should be adopted. . It is recommended to cut the fruit handle and the net sleeve immediately after the fruit is removed, and put it into a quantitative plastic box for handling. 3 Choose the crown and the outer crown of the fruit, and then pick the fruit inside the crown and the crown under a few days. 4 It is not advisable to carry out before rain, fog or dew is dry. You should choose to pick fruit in fine weather. 5 Harvesting requirements: First, grading and batch mining. The second is to re-cold in time to ensure the commerciality of the fruit.

Nine, timely application of base fertilizer

Base fertilizer is the most basic and important fertilization of orchard, which is related to the supply of various nutrients in the annual cycle of fruit trees. Shiji fertilizer should pay attention to time, rationality and scientificity. The specific requirements are: fertilization time is from September to October; the fertilizer type is mainly organic fertilizer, adding bio-organic fertilizer, applying appropriate amount of chemical fertilizer and supplementing micro-fertilizer; fertilization method is ditch application or acupoint application; fertilization site, at the outer edge of canopy Inside; fertilization depth, 20~40 cm (concentrated layer of root system). After the fruit is harvested, the same amount of fertilizer can be applied to the fruit trees. In autumn, the application of spring and winter can increase the fruit setting rate by 8~10% and increase the yield by 10~15%. The effect of increasing yield and yield is very obvious.

Ten, weeds

Autumn rain and weeds grow vigorously. After fertilization, we advocate the weeding of weeds inside and outside the garden, covering the orchard, which can play various functions such as cooling, soil improvement and fattening.

XI, pest control

Mainly to prevent apple rot disease and gold-grained moths, apples and so on.

September is an important period for the expansion of rot disease. During this period, a large number of hidden pathogens spread. Therefore, this period is also a critical period for the prevention and control of rot disease. It can be properly scraped and stained by the old skin and the skin layer 300 times + Silk run 3000 times, or star 5000 times + silk run 5000 times spray.

Twelve, planting grass between rows

In the autumn, we should plant the grass after fertilization in time. You can use rat grass, clover, etc., or grow rape.

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